The Secret of Shi Lin: The forgotten Southern Expedition in the Five Signs of Wanli

2022-05-29 0 By

Ming Dynasty wanli years there were five major campaigns, they are the southern campaign, the campaign of Ningxia, the campaign of aid to the east, the campaign of Bozhou, the campaign of later Jin.Wanli launched the five zheng without exception, are the Ming Dynasty military vassal, but they and the Ming Dynasty close the gap is relatively large.The Southern Expedition was the first large-scale expedition launched during the Reign of Wanli.And what of this now obscure expedition?Yunnan in the past The Ming Dynasty said yunnan is not only today’s Yunnan province, it also includes today’s eastern and northern Myanmar vast areas.This is a place where historically the Central Plains dynasty had very poor control and limited territory.During the Tang Dynasty, which peaked before the Yuan Dynasty, the largest area under its control was just around Kunming city.It was not until Kublai Khan led his army to conquer Dali that the whole of Yunnan was integrated into the territory of the Central Plains dynasty.At the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Mu Ying defeated the King liang of the Yuan Dynasty, who had divided Yunnan into the territory of the Ming Dynasty.However, the central government of the Ming Dynasty did not have a strong control over Yunnan due to its high mountains and dense forests, which forced the Ming government to implement the rule of jimi.On the basis of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty exercised more control over Yunnan Province, but it was really powerless over northern and western Myanmar.Therefore, in December 1445, the Ming dynasty officially established a garrison at Tengyue.With Tengchong as the core, the Ming Dynasty established the jimi control system for the eastern and northern areas of Myanmar, which is the so-called “three xuan and six Comfort”.”Three xuan” namely dry cliff Xuanfu Division, Longchuan Xuanfu Division, South Dian Xuanfu division;The “six consolation” is mu Bang, Myanmar, Che Li, 800 da Dian, Laos and Meng Yang.In the early years of the Yuan Dynasty, the Bagan dynasty in Burma was once powerful, but was defeated by Kublai Khan’s invading forces.In the middle and late Ming Dynasty, a powerful dynasty, The Tounxu Dynasty, emerged again. It became the first Burmese regime to take the initiative to challenge China.By 1579, the Tounxu dynasty had conquered meng Mi, Mu Bang and Meng Yang, all of which were originally in jimi Prefecture of the Ming Dynasty.In the eyes of the Ming rulers, tounxu’s attacks on the vassals of Mengmi, Mubang and Mengyang were a form of infighting among barbarians in the south, and killing each other was a good thing.Therefore, zhang Juzheng, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty, did not immediately deal with the issue of Tounxu attacking the Ming vassal.But by the 11th year of the Wanli Dynasty (1583), the Kingdom of Tounxu had become an inevitable adversary for the great Ming Dynasty.The troops of Tounxu went north and entered yunnan Province, which was established by the Ming Dynasty, setting foot on the territory of the Ming Dynasty.The Burmese army penetrated deep into Yunnan Province, burning and plundering Shidian (now Shidian, Yunnan), attacking Shunning (now Fengqing, Yunnan) and Zhanda (now Lianhua Street, Yingjiang County, Yunnan), killing and plundering wherever they went.Faced with the troops of Tounxu who were marching in and the urgent requests from Yunnan province, the Ming government could no longer plead off with infighting among the southern Barbarians.So the Ming dynasty began to mobilize troops to counter the invasion of Tounxu.Yunnan into the Ming army in liu 綎, Deng Zilong under the leadership of the Burmese army to teach a truth – thin dead camels than horses.The Ming army first defeated the Burmese army in Panzhihua (not panzhihua in Sichuan province) to the south of Yaoguan. Then the Ming army divided into two roads. Deng Zilong led the army to recover the lost areas such as Wandian and Gengma.However, liu 綎 led his troops to occupy Longchuan, the base of the Burmese troops in Yunnan, and captured Yue Feng, the “prime minister” appointed by the Dynasty of Tounxu.The man Yue Feng, Yue Feng?Why does it sound like a Chinese name?Yes this is a traitor, he is not a native of Yunnan, but a native of Linchuan, Jiangxi province.Lu Buwei, Guan Zhong, Fan Li these businessmen of the Spring and Autumn period and warring States period created the political miracle, is our descendants with great interest in the matter.But as China entered the era of unification, the vitality and status of businessmen in Chinese politics fell sharply.However, there are many ambitious people who have learned from lv Buwei and other predecessors.Yue Feng was a legendary careerist in politics among ancient Chinese businessmen.Yue Feng originally around business, but he came to Yunnan Longchuan to know the local Xuanfu duoshining, he decided duoshining is his own win.Later, he took out his business savings for many years and tried to curry favor with Dosnin. Finally, he became dosnin’s confidant and was appointed by Dosnin as a senior official in longchuan Xuanfu Department.Yue Feng stood by Tossnin and continued to make friends with tossnin’s subordinates.When he saw the powerful troops of the Tounxu dynasty, he secretly collaborated with them.When Yue Feng thought the time was ripe, he secretly gathered his cronies, encouraged them to launch a rebellion with him, killed the Dosnin couple!After killing Tossnin in her place, Yue Feng immediately publicly defected to the Tounxu dynasty of Burma, and with the support of the Tounxu Dynasty, she established herself as the xuanfu of Longchuan.However, Yue Feng deliberately dormant in the land of miasma, how can only for a small Longchuan Xuanfu?After being appointed prime minister by The Tounxu dynasty, Yue Feng spearheaded the Troops of Longchuan into the Ming Dynasty.Yue Feng is more like Boc than Lu Buwei.In addition to his personal ambition, his actions seemed tinged with an unusual hatred of the Ming Dynasty.However, in the style of the Ming government, such haters were everywhere.But this yue Feng, in the south of the way of collusion with the treason of The Dynasty of Dong Xu, is really special.After Yue Feng was captured, the Burmese army, deprived of its local Allies and afraid to engage the Ming army head-on, was routed out of Ming territory.According to Ming’s own records, the Ming army did not stop in Yunnan Province, but penetrated deep into present-day Burma.The Pagoda Burmese army in Mandalay, feeling that they were back in their own territory and trying to struggle, organized their troops to fight back.King Tounxu himself led his troops to attack the Ming army to boost their morale. As a result, the Burmese army was defeated by the Ming army and King Tounxu was shot dead in the battle.The Ming army took advantage of the victory to recover Manmo, Meng Yang and Meng Lian (did not find this is) and other places, seeing the Burmese army suffered a crushing defeat, Meng Mi Tusi back to Burma and Ming.The Ming army kept on fighting until it reached ava (now Mandalay), the deputy capital of Tanguy. The local garrison finally surrendered to kaesong and the Ming army returned home.It is very rare for the Ming army to have won such a great victory at the end of the Ming Dynasty. However, there are two contradictory reports about the results of this war.Question: In the beginning, we surveyed myanmar power, visited the country according to the imperial history su 酂 said: cut the question question is less than 1,000, there is no test to open up the city and expand the land, the dense land is still myanmar power, (Li) timber, (Liu) tian salary and so on.The Ming History only briefly notes this controversy, but Ming Shi Lu records the full text of Su 酂’s sonata.In that report, Su 酂 lambasted Li CAI, the deputy commissary officer of yunnan and the commander of the Southern Expedition Army. He conspired with Liu Shizeng, governor of Yunnan, to falsely report that they had conquered the Awa Array and beheaded The king of Tongxu, and much of the so-called recovered area was still occupied by the Burmese army.There is no doubt that the result of this southern expedition was not perfect, leaving a very large tail.Whether it dealt a severe blow to the invading Tounxu dynasty, or merely dealt a blow to a few rebellious chiefdoms led by Yue Feng, remains to be determined.The result of the war wanli 11 years wanli South March, not the end of the Ming And Burma war, it is only the most brilliant moment in the Ming Dynasty in the war.The defeated Tounxu dynasty rested and again attacked the southwest vassals of the Ming Dynasty. This time it shunned the Ming dynasty and concentrated on dealing with these vassal states.And wan Lizhao saw the fire did not less to their own body, so also muddle along.In 1602, in the thirtieth year of wanli, the Ming dynasty agreed to let The Tounxu dynasty occupy Mengyang, Mubang and Xingwei (now Deni?On the condition that the two sides reach a compromise.With a stroke of the Ming dynasty, the area of land transferred to The Tounxu dynasty was about 200,000 square kilometers, while the total area of Myanmar today is only 670,000 square kilometers.And in the history books also left such a record: Wanli thirty years (1602), autumn and July Burma thief trap man Mo Xuanfu division, Xuanfu thought is running tengyue, thief chase, have the division to kill is to thank thief, only solution.The imperial palace of Manmo xuanfu set up in the Ming Dynasty was captured by the troops of Tounxu. Manmo Xuanfu sent Sizheng to flee to Tengchong city where the Tengyue guards were stationed.However, the local Ming officials, afraid of tounxu’s troops, even killed Sizheng and made an apology to the Tounxu troops by holding his head and offering them wine in exchange for tounxu’s withdrawal!The Chinese men’s football team beat the Myanmar men’s football team thousands of times.The foreign power of the Ming dynasty was completely exposed in this incident, which made The Dynasty of Tongxu dare to launch an attack on the jimi islands of the Ming Dynasty.After the conquest of Manmo in the 30th year of Wanli, the Troops of Tounxu captured Mubang in the 34th year of Wanli (1606). From then on, all the land granted to Tounxu by the Ming Dynasty was occupied by the Burmese army!With the capture of Mupang, from wanli eleven years (1583) to Wanli thirty-four years (1606), the 14-year Ming-Burma War finally came to an official end.The outcome of the war was clear, and the small Dynasty of Tounxu, like turpan, which had swallowed up the Hami Wei of the Ming dynasty, was a worthy victor.The chain reaction was that the Tounxu dynasty succeeded in plucking such a large piece of meat out of the Ming Dynasty, which gave Anam confidence as well.In December 1607, Annam invaded Qinzhou in the 35th year of wanli.However, from the historical records, the local Ming army apparently repelled the attack, and annan became honest after the war and did not dare to move north.Undoubtedly, this is the victory of Ming Army, the victory of Ming fan, and the tragedy of Song fan.The mining-Burma War, which has little historical history, was actually the longest war of the Wanli period, and is largely unknown to most of us because it was fought outside the territory of the Ming dynasty.It was not hard to see the rapid decline of the Ming dynasty under the Wanli emperor from the time when the Ming army was able to wipe out the invading Burmese army to the time when The Wanli Emperor recognized an area of 250,000 square kilometers as the domain of The Tangui dynasty.Feel the code word of the article is also good, through the passing read please praise a powder a turn.Thank you for your support.If you are interested in the code word article, please continue to read the previous work of code word: What was the mining tax in the late Ming Dynasty