Peculiar views on Taoism of senior officials in Song Dynasty

2022-04-28 0 By

Some of the ideas of Taoism were occasionally misunderstood in the course of their dissemination, even by some high-ranking literati and officials.Let’s look at how a small number of literati in the Song Dynasty misunderstood the Tao Te Ching.During the reign of Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty, Liu Kai, who was an official in the palace to serve the imperial historian and worship the emperor, declared: “The disciples of the old and The Buddhas started from yi, and yi is very good at teaching.As for China, there is no such thing as father-son rule and minister.”There is no doubt that Buddhism is a foreign religion.However, Liu Kai believed that the doctrine of Daojun did not belong to China but to Yidi, which is very strange.In fact, the main reason why he reached such a conclusion contrary to common sense was to belittle and reject the idea of Dao Jun and maintain the position of Confucianism with the thought of arguing between The Chinese and the barbarians.Shi Jie put forward his own “China” concept.In his opinion, only within Kyushu Island, where Confucian ethics are practiced, can be called “China”; otherwise, it is Yidi, as the saying goes, “All yidi are not Kings and ministers, fathers and sons, couples, brothers, guests and friends within kyushu Island.”In the early and middle period of the Northern Song Dynasty, Liu Kai and Shi Jie criticized the daojun thought and denounced daojun as yi Di. On the one hand, the Confucian family was indifferent and could not control the situation.On the other hand, at that time, the ethnic contradictions were acute, and the problem of Yixia was prominent.Such criticism is just self-talk, contrary to common sense.Fan Zhongyan and Su Shi in His Book On Fame, Fan Zhongyan affirmed the idea of advocating fame and honor, and criticized the idea that a man of virtue was more important than his body.Fan Zhongyan believed that, for individuals, if the monarch and the scholar-officials attached importance to reputation, there would be a certain bottom line in their behavior.If “people do not love the name, although there is criminal law, can not stop its evil also.Reputation is not cherished, and the criminal law and the state’s machinery of violence cannot contain evil.For the state, if people loved their own bodies more than their own names, as the Lord of Tao said, people would not go through fire and water for the sake of fame, and it would be difficult for the sovereign to control society with rewards and punishments of fame and wealth, he pointed out: the Lord of Tao said, “Which is the relation of fame and the body?”Zhuangzi said, “Doing good has no immediate name.”This is Taoist training, so that people thin on the name and keep its true, the acts of people, non titles and salaries can be added, rewards and punishments can move, or for the country’s use zai?My father the king taught by his name, and the world persuaded itself…People do not love fame, although there is criminal law, can not stop its evil.In his essay On Han Fei, written around the fifth year of Jiayou (1060), Su Shi opposed the Taoist emperor’s criticism of benevolence, justice, etiquette and music, and thought that the Taoist emperor’s words were “nihilistic and indifferent” and “intended to place the world in the absence of anything”.In his view, the doctrine of the Lord of Tao is a heresy, which is not only inadequate to govern the world, but also a source of cruel and caustic legalism, thus endangering the world. He said: The doctrine of benevolence and justice starts from the love between husband and wife, father and son, and brother;And the original rites of punishment, from the emperor and minister up and down avoid when……Now old leaf, Zhuangzhou on the emperor and minister, between father and son, generally if ping floating in the river’s lake and appropriate value also.Husband is the father is not enough love, and jun is not enough avoid.Do not avoid its king, do not love his father, benevolence is not enough to huai, justice is not enough to persuade, etiquette and music is not enough.These four are insufficient, and desire in the world has no.Husband has no, how honest enough to govern the world zai!Shang Yang and Han Fei-qiu were unable to do so because of their opinions, but they were able to overcome the world by daring to be cruel.Confucian benevolence, justice and propriety come from the affection of husband and wife, father and son, brother, and the righteousness of emperor and minister. However, the Prince of Tao does not take the affection of emperor and minister, father and son as his thoughts, which makes Confucian benevolence, justice and propriety and music lose the basis of existence.According to this, Shang Yang and Han Fei created the cruel and caustic legalism.Qin used legalist thought to rule the world, resulting in the destruction of the people.Therefore, while criticizing legalist thought, we should also guard against and reject the thought of Dao Jun, its theoretical source.If it is true, as Su Shi said, that sovereigns only use fame and wealth to control society, it is no different from their own “Han Feizi”.On the contrary, people do not indulge in external fame and wealth, and live with the moral endowment of “people are like each other”, so as to better contain the evil in the world, rather than add another layer of possible shackles.(Reference: Wang Yaohui.A Study on Song Rufei’s Old Thoughts [D]. Central China Normal University,2019.)