2022 Preparation: History of junior high School “Ancient Chinese Foreign Relations”

2022-04-23 0 By

Qin and Han Dynasties qin and Han Dynasties: China became more powerful than ever, and the East Asian cultural circle centered on China was expanding, with its influence reaching beyond East Asia and reaching as far as Europe and Africa.During this period, exchanges were mainly limited to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and other close neighbors.It was not until the late Eastern Han Dynasty that China had direct contact with West Asia and Europe.Historical facts :(1) there were frequent economic and cultural exchanges and personnel exchanges with Japan and Korea. (2) zhang qian opened up the silk road through the western regions, which was the most glorious performance of China’s diplomatic relations during this period and opened up a new era of communication between China and the west.(4) In the Eastern Han Dynasty, When Ban Chao was in charge of the Western regions, he sent Gan Ying on a mission to Daqin and returned to the Persian Gulf without success.In 166, the Great Qin Andun Dynasty sent ambassadors to Tonghan.This is the earliest record of direct contact between China and Europe.Features: Mainly with neighboring countries, began to contact with Europe;There are official, civil and other ways, the official is the main participant;Mainly by land.Sui and Tang Dynasties Sui and Tang Dynasties: With political stability, feudal economy prospered and foreign communications developed, Chang ‘an and Luoyang became international metropolitans. The government encouraged foreign businessmen to trade in China and allowed them to live and work in China for a long time and intermarry with Chinese people.Economic and cultural exchanges with other countries far exceeded those of previous generations.Historical facts: (1) north Korea: students, travel, study, journal, manual technology (2) Japan: regulations, foreign students, important people (kibi really ready, distinguishing), political system change flow (new), the Kyoto architecture, text, (3) India: life in Buddhism, afford, decimal notation to tianzhu, xuan zang and yijing (4) : josiahPersia, envoys, Kings and merchants came to China.Big food, Tang Gaozong and The Chinese envoy, paper technology spread to big food.Features: First, opening-up in all respects will have far-reaching impact.China has gradually become the economic and cultural center of the East.Economic and cultural exchanges with some neighboring countries are no longer limited to ordinary exchanges, but serve as centers for personnel training and economic exchanges.Second, the scope of space has been greatly expanded. Apart from East and Southeast Asia, there have been frequent commercial, economic and cultural exchanges between Central and West Asia, Europe and even Africa.Most notably, Persian and Arab envoys and merchants came to China in large numbers.During the Tang Dynasty, there were still a number of Persians who stayed in China and did not return.Third, both land and sea transport are developed.Historical facts of the Song and Yuan Dynasties: (1) The Northern Song Dynasty: overseas trade exceeded that of the previous dynasties;The government set up offices in Guangzhou and other places to manage foreign affairs and collect commercial taxes.(2) Southern Song Dynasty: trade with more than 50 countries (mainly Arab merchants);Open fannies for foreign businessmen in big harbors;Quanzhou was the world’s largest international trade port at that time;The compass reached Europe.(3) Liao and Jin: Trade with Goryeo as envoys and set up consultation courts on the border.(4) Yuan: to set up markets at each port for trade and exchange with other countries;Marco Polo came to Dadu during the Reign of Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, and Liban Esau was the first Chinese traveler to visit Any European country when he went to West Asia and Africa.Gunpowder spread to Europe through Arabia.Characteristics: First, the development of commodity economy, the prosperity of foreign trade, foreign shipping by leaps and bounds, especially maritime transport.Second, there emerged a group of international great travelers who were rich in voyages.Such as Wang Dayuan in the Yuan Dynasty and Zheng He in the Ming Dynasty.At the same time, among the large number of merchants coming to China from Arabia, Persia and Europe, there emerged a number of world-famous travelers, such as Marco Polo.Historical facts in the Ming and Qing Dynasties: (1) Zheng He’s voyages to the Western Seas: 1405-1433, seven times, the east coast of Africa, the Red Sea coast;(2) The Development of Nanyang by Overseas Chinese began in tang Dynasty;The Ming Dynasty greatly spread advanced technology and culture to promote the development of Nanyang.(3) Qi Jiguang fought against Japanese pirates: The Ming government boycotted the ships, which led to the collusion between the profiteers and Japanese pirates and formed the Japanese invasion;In 1565, Qi Jiajun, jiujie of Taizhou, in cooperation with Yu Dayou, basically wiped out the Japanese pirates in the southeast coast.(4) Portuguese occupation of Macao: 1553 defrauding the right of residence;Forcibly leasing and occupying Macao;The Ming government always held the territorial sovereignty of Macao.(5) Zheng Chenggong recovered Taiwan: The Netherlands occupied Taiwan in the late Ming Dynasty;Zheng Chenggong recovered Taiwan in 1662.Zheng developed Taiwan;After the qing government recovered Taiwan, Taiwan province was established in 1684, which was subordinate to Fujian Province.(6) Fighting against Tsarist Russia: during kangxi’s reign, two battles of Yaksa were fought;1689 The characteristics of the Treaty of Niebuchu: from opening to closing, the relationship between China and foreign countries was gradually interrupted;The struggle against the foreign invaders began.1. Reasons for frequent foreign relations ① Political stability;② Economic prosperity;③ Developed external transportation;Enlightened foreign policy.2. There are four channels of economic and cultural exchanges with foreign countries: first, trade, including official trade and non-governmental trade;Second, official envoys and overseas students;Third, through religious figures;Fourth, through war.Characteristics of Sino-Foreign relations before the Ming Dynasty: ① (Status) Before the Ming Dynasty, Chinese civilization had always been in a leading position in the world. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the overall pattern of “Chinese Cultural Circle” was completed, and China became the center of economic and cultural exchanges in neighboring regions and even in Asia and Africa.Successive rulers basically adopted the policy of opening to the outside world.③ (Mode) Sino-foreign relations are dominated by diplomatic envoys, trade and cultural exchanges.(1) The political needs of the Qing Dynasty: the entry of ethnic minorities into the Central Plains as the ruling class inevitably caused the opposition of the Han people, which made the peasant uprisings surging up and threatening the ruling in order to prevent the formation of anti-Qing alliance between China and foreign countries;(2) It is a reflection of the characteristics of self-sufficient natural economy: in the early Qing Dynasty, industry and commerce were relatively developed, but the self-sufficient feudal economy still occupied an important position, which made the rulers think that there was no need to “trade” with foreign countries, and they were afraid of foreign businessmen and coastal people to contact and cause trouble.③ The result of the colonial expansion of western countries.(2) The consequences (positive) resisted foreign aggression to a certain extent, temporarily delayed the colonial aggression, which was conducive to the continued development of Chinese feudal society;(Negative) almost cut off the contact between China and foreign countries, hinder the development of commodity economy, leading to China’s backwardness.5, enlightenment :(1) open country prosperity, closed country decline.Opening to the outside world is conducive to the development of economy and culture, and the country is strong and prosperous.Shutting the country off from the rest of the world slows down economic and cultural development and makes the country lag behind.It is the trend of world history to strengthen ties, learn from each other and promote each other. Only by conforming to the development of history can we make progress; otherwise, we will decline and fall.(3) We should absorb the essence and discard the dross of foreign things